What is a power converter?

What is a power converter?

Power Converter, the definition from Wikipedia A strength converter is an electrical or electro-mechanical system for converting electrical energy. It may also be converting AC to or from DC, or the voltage or frequency, or some aggregate of these. One way of classifying electricity conversion systems is according to whether or not the enter and output are alternating modern (AC) or direct cutting-edge (DC):

• AC to DC
• DC to AC
• DC to DC
• AC to AC



However, cutting-edge energy converters are made with many conversion stages. For example, an UPS (uninterruptible power supply) is made with two stages, first an AC to DC conversion to make a DC voltage, where the batteries are connected, accompanied by a DC to AC conversion, which components the load. Amongst the many gadgets that are used for this cause are:

• Switched-mode power supply
• Rectifier
• Inverter
• Motor generator set
• DC-DC Converter
• Converter

Electrical energy conversion is an extraordinary field of electrical engineering. Power electronics is the utility of solid-state electronics for the control and conversion of electric power. It is even more restrictive as it excludes rotating machines (electrical motor and generator).

a power converter or power supply?

In the early ’80s the term “power supply” used to be dominant at CERN. Then, it grew to be captivating to differentiate the terminology between the mains energy supply, a laboratory power supply, and the so-called magnet power supply. The trend, also in industry, was once to treat the domain of electricity conversion as a one-of-a-kind field, due to the increasing use of electricity solid-state electronics. Today at CERN, the time period of the energy converter is used for the accelerators but the experiments decide on the term of the strong supply. Worldwide, the term of strength provide stays the most widely used.

Where do we locate strength converters in particle accelerators?
Everywhere! Particle accelerators are powered through electricity, which requires energy conversion. Power elements are used for computers, control systems, electronics …These extensively used devices are industrial products. Special energy elements are wished for magnet, radiofrequency, particle source, kicker, septa,…

Why the magnet energy converters are so specials?

Particle accelerators required excessive accuracy power converter for magnets. The magnets pressure the beam and they want a very steady DC current. The input of the power converter is commonly AC (from electrical network) and the output is a DC voltage applied to the magnet. As in most of the case, the magnetic subject of the magnet can’t be measured in real-time, the output modern of the strength converter is used to manage the beam. The modern-day is measured with a pretty correct current transducer. This transducer employs zero-flux compensation methods and is called a DCCT (Direct Current Current transformer).

What are the most vital parameters for accelerator magnet operation?



• Output DC current
• Output DC voltage
• Output voltage ripple
• Output modern-day stability
• Output present-day accuracy
• Output contemporary placing resolution…

Literature

Special CERN Accelerator School on the situation of ‘power converters’: Power converters for particle accelerators, CERN Accelerator School 2004, Warrington, UK (CAS)
The specialized path on power converters, CERN Accelerator School CAS 1990, Montreux, Switzerland
Some books on electricity electronics:
“Power Electronics: Converters, Applications, and Design” ISBN: 978-0-471-22693-2
“Power Electronics: Circuits, Devices, and Applications” ISBN 978-0131011403
“An Introduction to Power Electronics” ISBN 978-0471926177

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